Clean Energy and Low Carbon Technology as Indonesia Transitional Energy Strategy
On the national level, energy is a popular and significant topic. Based on several opinion article in largest newspaper in Indonesia -Kompas, the public awareness and interest on energy is high. For example Agustiawan (Feb 2014) argue on the importance of national energy policy, which also strengthen by Bachtiar (Jul 2015) on policy that has no conflicted interest. The energy source also popular topic such as Rajagukguk (Jun 2015 on Nuclear, Dalimi (Mei 2015 on Solar Energy, Wilardjo (Sep 2015 on Renewable Energy. Electricity also discussed Kuncoro (Oct 2015 and Rakhmanto (Nov 2015. Another argument that focusing on coal and clean technology promoted by Kartasasmita (Oct 2015)
The energy challenge that face Indonesia is the same challenges that developing countries face. Cao (2003) in climate change and energy development paper mention that energy challenges in developing countries are contradictory objectives, unrealistic standards and rigid incentives, public environmental unawareness, and the most significant is financial shortages. Cao study summarizes what has appear in the national energy challenges that written in Indonesia newspaper in the latest year.
Energy challenge or energy security according to Kruyt et al (2009) in the indicator for energy security paper refer to four dimensions which are availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability. Moreover Bollen et al (2010) in an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution and energy policy concluded that combining multiple policy of climate, pollution and energy provide a bigger benefit. However taking the knowledge on the execution in developing countries is more challenging. Bazilian et al (2011) by using Medupi supercritical coal plant in South Africa is facing the energy dillema.
Clean Technology as Transitional Strategy
In Indonesia case a sudden change is difficult to be made. In bridging those condition, using clean technology can be transitional strategy before moving to renewable energy. Several study performed such as by Worrell et al (2001) on technology transfer of energy efficient technologies, Ockwell et al (2008) on key policy for low carbon technology transfer, and Das and Ahlgren (2010) on ASEAN clean technologies transfer.