Adaptation is Avoid and Accept Risk Response
In PMP examination, risk response usually mnemonic by ATM term (Avoid, Transfer, Mitigate). In general risk management usually it add one more term which is Accept (doing nothing), so usually the term goes by Avoid, Transfer, Mitigate, Accept (ATMA) or other variations.
In the climate change the term usually Adaptation and Mitigation, where Adapation can be Avoid or Accept. By Definition adaptation is seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to current climate change and thus offset the effects.
The method of adaptation can be, enhancing adaptive capacity (education, reduce poverty, improve infrastructure), agriculture production, geoengineering.
IPCC suggest several strategy:
- Strategy: Strengthening of overhead transmission and distribution infrastructure; underground cabling for utilities; energy efficiency; use of renewable sources; reduced dependence on single sources of energy
- Policy: National energy policies, regulations, and fiscal and financial incentives to encourage use of alternative sources; incorporating climate change in design standards
- Constraint: Access to viable alternatives; financial and technological barriers; acceptance of new technologies;
- Opportunities: stimulation of new technologies; use of local resources
Mitigation (Energy Supply):
- Strategy: Improved supply and distribution efficiency; fuel switching from coal to gas; nuclear power; renewable heat and power (hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal and bioenergy); combined heat and power; early applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) (e.g. storage of removed CO2 from natural gas); CCS for gas, biomass and coal-fired electricity generating facilities; advanced nuclear power; advanced renewable energy, including tidal and wave energy, concentrating solar, and solar photovoltaics
- Policy 1: Reduction of fossil fuel subsidies; taxes or carbon charges on fossil fuels
- Policy 2: Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy technologies; renewable energy obligations; producer subsidies
- Constraint 1: Resistance by vested interests may make them difficult to implement
- Constraint 2: May be appropriate to create markets for low- emissions technologies