What is Research
Research is only a very small part of political economy circumstances. And performing research is not cheap, it is very expensive.
- An economist, by using nothing but his spreadsheet might induce a theory that liberal education might increase GDP. His expecting that government should build new school that teach liberal education. Will the government buy it? no if its against their political vision. The best way is to secure the buyer first, ensure that there is an institution that will buy the product.
An energy researcher, by using simple device might deduce a new way to generate electricity by using new solar panel. Will any Indonesian business willing to buy this new method? of course not. There is a supplier chain, there is market.
A computer scientist, by using nothing but his computer might develop new algorithm that can make google searching method 200% faster. What can he do? the best he can do is apply for google. It is impossible to compete with google.
What if we have a lot of money
Assume that we have 10 million USD to perform an accurate research on the new palm oil variety that grow 150% faster. Will the industry buy it? well there is a lot of missing point there, on the commercial price, on the patent. Even, I could not imagine that the case like that will be happened.
Image from YN Harari Book, Sapiens.