Why Indonesia is not modern country
What is still contested is the nature of the nation-state. All but a decade of the past 200 years have been under authoritarian rule, whether colonial (Dutch, British or Japanese), populist (Sukarno) or military-bureaucratic (Soeharto).
The transition to democracy has therefore been even more protracted and painful than economic development. This has in turn retarded the emergence of institutions that would be appropriate to a modern-state and able to sustain a large, dispersed and technically sophisticated economy.
Howard Dick et al 2001, Economic History of Indonesia 1800-2000
I am crying reading this.