History of Sugar and Industrialization in Indonesia
I start to realize that the importance of sugar cane industry in Indonesia. It began with 1830-1870 Cultivation System and continue with 1870-1900 Liberalism Period. Sugar industry introduce the use of machinery (Steam Engine) in 1826, further to built steam railway in 1867.
In term of capital development, the 1870 liberalism period increase the number of sugar plant in Indonesia, owned by government (Dutch East Indies) or private entrepreneur (local king, chinese), for example:
- Colomadu sugar factory built in 1861, owned by Mangkunegaran IV.
- Tjoekir sugar factory (Tebu Ireng) built in 1884 by DEI
The one that I missed is how industrialization change the society behavior in two sides:
- Because of Innovation: More production, more people needed, more money, more social problem
- To fight social problem: More social movement e.g Religious NU 1926, PKI 1914
The pattern repeated again and again. It remind me on two questions in Quora:
- How did the Philippines collapse from being the second most progressive country in Southeast Asia (vying behind Japan) to a third-world country amassing billions of debt in the course of a couple of decades?
- If Filipinos are so much better at English than Koreans, why is the Filipino economy so much worse?
The pattern that made by Indonesian is the same.