Korupsi, Political Economy and Competitive Advantage
Analisa Norman Joshua ini bagus, sebagai salah satu narasi mengenai perkembangan industri di Indonesia. Ada cerita mengenai Krakatau Steel juga Bontang dan Arun LNG plant. Namun analisa dari sisi deskriptif saja tidak cukup. Sebagai perbandingan:
How not to industrialise: Indonesia’s automotive industry (Aswicahyono, 2000)
Analisa Aswicahyono lebih bagus, karena lebih detail. Bahwa automotive industry harus dibreakdown e.g Assembly vs Component, Export vs Import Substituion, Local vs Foreign, Vehicle Size, Employment.
Namun, yang lebih bagus lagi adalah Analisa dari Mahlia et al mengenai industrialisasi dari Palm Oil.
An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia (Mahlia, T.M.I., Abdulmuin, M.Z., Alamsyah, T.M.I., Mukhlishien, D. 2001)
“….As tropical countries, Malaysia and Indonesia are considered to be very fortunate because of having palm oil plantations. Besides re-planting of burned rain forests, the plantation also offers many jobs for unskilled workers in the countries. In the energy point of view, the advantage of the palm oil industry is that the fiber and shell can be conveniently used as fuel for the steam boiler which is the heart of a palm oil mill. This energy is considered as free for the palm oil milling process…”
Pertamina also handled several large-scale projects that were highly capital intensive and eventually became burdensome for Pertamina’s own budget and subsequently caused the Pertamina debt crisis. One of these “white elephant” projects was therehabilitation of the Sukarno-era Krakatau Steel project in Cilegon, West Java Province (now Banten Province).This steel mill project was originally constructed with Soviet aid, but it was abandoned after the fall of Sukarno. In 1970, Pertamina took over the management and financing of the project by providing funds for the establishment of the PT. Krakatau Steel, which had an estimated cost of US$5.6 billion. Throughout the 1970s, construction for state-of-the-art facilities such as the Cilacap refinery, Badak / Bontang LNG plant in East Kalimantan, and the Arun LNG plant in North Sumatra were initiated
Through examination of Indonesia and South Korea cases, this paper argues that democratization, by itself, is not necessarily effective to reduce corruption. It’s effectiveness, however, determined by the strength level of state institutions. In a country where institutions are strong enough, democratization will effective to minimize corruption, whereas in a country with weak institutions, democratization will not significantly contribute to reduce corruption.