Anjar Priandoyo

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Contrasting Opinion: Old vs New Philosophy

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Secara klasik di Indonesia, filfasat hanya belajar tiga hal: Ontologi (Klasifikasi, Taxonomy, Naming Convention, Metaphysics, Study of Reality, Existence), Epistemologi (Logika, Reasoning, Study of Knowledge, Knowledge Acquisition) dan Axiology (Morality).

Ontologi itu jelas, aturan penamaan, bahasa, aturan klasifikasi, rules. Axiologi (moral) itu

OPINION OLD VS NEW

  • Metaphysics: Plato (b427BC) Idealism vs Aristotle Direct Realism (b384BC)
  • Monasticism: Anthony the Great (b251) vs Hippo (b354)
  • Ideology: Augustine Hippo Monasticism (b354) vs Aquinas’ Scholasticism (b1225)
  • Reformation Counterreformation: Luther (b1483), Calvin (b1509) vs Loyola (b1491)
  • Protestanism: Luther (b1483) vs Calvin (b1509)
  • Scientific Method / Modern Philosophy: Descartes Platonic Theory (b1596) vs Francis Bacon Aristotelian Empiricism (b1561)
  • Metaphysics: Descartes Dualism (b1596) vs Spinoza Single Substance (b1632)
  • Government: Hobbes Law and Order (b1588) vs Rousseau Human Right (b1712), Locke (b1632) in the middle
  • God: Spinoza Immanent (b1632) vs Leibniz (b1646) Transcendent
  • Morality: Kant A priori principles (b1724) vs Hume Empiricism (b1711)
  • Calculus: Leibniz (b1646) vs Newton (b1643)
  • Government method: Voltaire Monarchy (b1650) vs Rousseau Democracy (b1712)
  • Realism: Kant Direct realism (b1724) vs Locke Indirect realism (1632)
  • Metaphysic Belief: Hegel (b1770) vs Kant (b1724)
  • Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham (b1748) vs J.S. MIll (b1806)
  • Psychology: Nietzsche (b1844) vs Freud (b1856)
  • Quantum Mechanic: Einstein (b1879) vs Bohr (b1885)
  • Scientific Method: Karl Popper (b1902) Falsification vs Thomas Kuhn (b1922) Paradigm Shift

CROSS GENERATION:

  • Epistemology / Knowledge Aquisition: Rationalism Plato, Descartes, Spinoza vs Empiricism Locke Berkeley (b1685) vs Skeptism Hume
  • Morality: Aristotelian Virtue Ethics vs Kant Duty Defined vs Consequentialist Utilitarian Bentham

PIONEER:

  • Descartes: Everything against him, Spinoza, Kant,
  • Kant: After since Kant, philosopher stopped talking about religion, Kant one of greatest German Philosopher

Wiki: Direct and indirect realism, Critique of the Kantian philosophy

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, while metaphysics is the study of reality. Epistemology looks at how we know what the truth is and whether there are limits to this knowledge, while metaphysics seeks to understand the nature of reality and existence

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

September 22, 2018 pada 3:45 pm

Ditulis dalam Society

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