Anjar Priandoyo

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HS Classification Vegetables Oil (15) vs Organic Chemical (29) vs Miscellaneous Chemical Product (38)

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Ini istilah super membingungkan. Industri hulu sawit itu seharusnya berhenti di HS12 dan HS14, tapi kelihatannya berhentinya di HS15 (Crude Oil), teknologinya cuman crushing (mechanical), kemudian RBD (juga mechanical). Disini juga wujudnya sudah minyak, dimurnikan lagi dengan fraksinasi (pendinginan) dan kristalisasi. Wujudnya baru berubah ketika proses kimis dilakukan, dalam hal ini adalah Transesterifikasi.

RBD= Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized
RBDPO = RBD Palm Oil, Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized
RBDPS = RBD Palm Stearin, The solid fraction obtained by the fractionation of palm oil after crystallization at controlled temperatures e.g margarine
RBDPO = RBD Palm Olein, The liquid fraction obtained by the fractionation of palm oil after crystallization at controlled temperatures e.g cooking oil (minyak goreng)

http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Di-Fa/Fats-and-Fatty-Acids.html
https://www.cargill.com.my/en/products-services/palm-products/palm-oil-products/rbd-palm-olein/index.jsp
https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minyak_sawit

Jargon:

  • Lipid = Substances of biological origin that are soluble in nonpolar solvents. It comprises a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others
  • Fat = Fatty Acid + Glycerol. Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.
  • The terms “oil”, “fat”, and “lipid” are often confused. “Oil” normally refers to a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while “fat” may specifically refer to fats that are solids at room temperature. “Lipid” is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water.
  • Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated
  • Carboxylic acid = an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH).[1] The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the (possibly quite large) molecule. Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids (which make up proteins) and acetic acid (which is part of vinegar and occurs in metabolism).
  • Stearic Acid sering digolongkan ke vegetables oil. Stearic acid adalah saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid and its chemical formula is C17H35CO2H
  • Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is an odorless, colorless oil, though commercial samples may be yellowish. In chemical terms, oleic acid is classified as a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, abbreviated with a lipid number of 18:1 cis-9. It has the formula CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH.[2] The term “oleic” means related to, or derived from, olive oil which is mostly composed of oleic acid.

Catatan:

Oleofood: Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Plam Oil (RBDPO). Non-dairy creamer, ice cream, instant noodle
Oleochemical: Refined Palm Stearin. Soap, Animal Feed, Coffee whiteners

Refined Palm Olein
Palm Fatty Acid
Biodiesel = Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME)

Catatan:

HS12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits
HS1207 Tandan Buah Segar (TBS)
HS14 Vegetable plaiting materials
HS1404 Cangkang Sawit, Tandan Buah Kosong

HS15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils
HS1511 Palm oil and its fractions
HS151321 Palm kernel/babassu oil, crude
HS1520 Glycerol, crude; glycerol waters and glycerol lyes.

HS38 Miscellaneous chemical products
HS3823 Industrial monocarboxylic fatty acids
HS382311 Stearic acid (detergents, soaps, and cosmetics)
HS382312 Oleic acids (soap as an emulsifying agent)
HS382319 Industrial monocarboxylic fatty acids other than stearic acid/oleic acid/, acids oil from refining
HS382370 Industry fatty alcohols

HS3826 Biodiesel and mixtures Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)

HS29 Organic Chemical
HS2915 Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids

https://comtrade.un.org/db/mr/rfCommoditiesList.aspx?px=H2&cc=1511

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Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Agustus 17, 2017 at 3:30 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

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Sengketa Biodiesel Indonesia

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Sengketa biodiesel adalah masalah yang rumit. Berbeda dengan CPO, export biodiesel Indonesia >75% ke Eropa, sementara export CPO >70% ke Asia (India & China). Jadi kalau membaca dokumen European Parliament resolution of 4 April 2017 on palm oil and deforestation of rainforests sangat sedih. EU memang punya puluhan pertimbangan untuk memblokir produk sawit Indonesia. Baca salah satu point pertimbangannya saja, di salah satu point dibackup oleh IIASA, jangankan G2G, seorang Prof. Chairil Anwar Siregar akan kesulitan melawan opini tersebut.

Jadi ini perkara yang sangat serius.

Biofuel boleh dibilang baru mulai tahun 2005, seiring krisis energi dan PP Energy Mix.

Asosiasi Produsen Biofuel Indonesia (APROBI)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 7, 2017 at 1:11 pm

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Ekspor Sawit

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Ekspor sawit kita yang 27 MT itu masuk dalam kategori HS 15-11, atau istilah lainya adalah RBD (Refined Bleached and Deodorized) Palm Olein atau RFM (Refining, Fractionation & Oil Modifications)

15 Name: Animal or vegetable fats and oils
Description: Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes

11 Name: Palm oil and its fractions
Description: Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified.

Variannya adalah:
Crude Palm Oil (Kode HS 151110000)
Other Palm Oil (Kode HS 151190000), Palm oil, other than crude, & fractions thereof , whether or not ref. but not chemically modified
Crude Oil of Palm Kernel (Kode HS 151321000)
Other Palm Kernel Oil (Kode HS 151329000)

Intinya belum dilakukan modifikasi kimia, jadi ini lahan dari Dept. Pertanian
https://comtrade.un.org/db/mr/rfCommoditiesList.aspx?px=H2&cc=1511

Ekspor turunan sawit yang secara kategori masuk HS 15-20 adalah glycerol, ini sudah lahan dari Dept. Perindustrian
1520 Name: Glycerol, crude; glycerol waters and glycerol lyes.
Description: Glycerol, crude; glycerol waters and glycerol lyes.

Ekspor turunan sawit masuk dalam kategori HS 38-23
Fatty Acid
3823110000 Stearic acids (detergents, soaps, and cosmetics)
3823120000 Oleic acids (soap as an emulsifying agent)
3823191000 Acids oil from refining

Fatty Alcohol (detergents and surfactants)
3823701000 Industry fatty alcohols in the form of wax
3823709000 Oth industry fatty alcohols in the form of wax

Gliserol (Cosmetic & In food and beverages, glycerol serves as a humectant, solvent, and sweetener, and may help preserve foods)
1520001000 Crude glycerol
1520009000 Glycerol waters & glycerol lyes
2905450000 Glycerol

Biodiesel
3826009010 Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)

Industrial monocarboxylic fatty acids

https://comtrade.un.org/db/mr/rfCommoditiesList.aspx?px=H2&cc=3823

Tahun 2013, porsi ekspor turunan sawit kita adalah:
Fatty Acid 537 kt
Fatty Alcohol 259 kt
Gliserol 485 kt
Biodiesel 1687 kt

Source: PROFIL INDUSTRI OLEOKIMIA DASAR DAN BIODIESEL – Kemenperin Report 2015

GIMNI Gabungan Industri Minyak Nabati Indonesia (GIMNI) Indonesian Vegetable Oil Association
Anggota asosiasi adalah berbasis industri “refineries”, yaitu mencakup proses pengolahan minyak nabati berupa Pemurnian Minyak Nabati (Refineries dan Fractionation), Kernel Crushing Plant (KCP) dan Copra Crushing Plant (CCP). Tahapan proses “refiners” ini sering juga disebut RFM (Refining, Fractionation & Oil Modifications).

GAPKI Gabungan Pengusaha Kelapa Sawit Indonesia (GAPKI) Indonesia Palm Oil Association (IPOA)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 6, 2017 at 11:09 am

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Biodiesel Dilemma

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Kemarin saya ditanya kira-kira begini:
“Is production of palm oil for biofuel a significant factor in creating this huge environmental problem? Or may it become so in the future if expanded biofuel production is encouraged?”

Mau saya jawab:
“Iyalah sudah pasti, mau pengembangan apapun palm oil atau crude oil pasti akan berdampak besar pada lingkungan, namanya lingkungan pasti jadi korban. Indonesia adalah negara berkembang yang tingkat ekonominya menengah, artinya dalam posisi cash flow sulit. Income dari crude oil rendah, seiring dengan harga minyak rendah. Padahal sudah terlanjur banyak beban (e.g subsidi bahan bakar, subsidi perekonomian). Artinya mau tidak mau harus memikirkan bagaimana agar ekonominya meningkat, jualannya lebih laku.

Artinya semua akan dijual. Sawit akan dipush dijual sebanyak-banyaknya. Otomatis Biodiesel juga akan dipush dijual sebanyak-banyaknya.

Contoh, Indonesia rely dengan sawit, ada sekitar 11 juta lahan sawit. Produksinya sekitar 34 MT, dimana hampir 80%-nya atau sekitar 27 MT di ekspor. Bayangkan, diekspor mentah, padahal bisa lebih menguntungkan kalau di improve terlebih dahulu (hilirisasi), dijual dalam produk jadi.

Mungkin lebih baik saya jawab:
Biofuel production in Indonesia is closely related with Palm Oil production. There are 11 million ha of palm oil and producing around 34 MT, on which around 10 MT is for domestic (30%). In domestic consumption estimated around 70% is for palm oil margarine, while biodiesel is only around 10%, other is detergen.

So why biodiesel is selected by government is a number of reasons:
1.to absorb palm oil production (to save palm oil industry)
2.to help energy security
Where the first reason I think is the most dominant.

So jawaban pertanyaan diatas: Yes. It is getting worse (for environment), however for Indonesia is better for the economy. Average Indonesian will support this.

https://gapki.id/kemajuan-hilirisasi-minyak-sawit-indonesia/

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 5, 2017 at 10:49 am

Ditulis dalam Science

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Biodiesel dan Sawit

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Sebelum mengkritisi biodiesel, maka kita harus paham dulu mengenai dunia sawit.

Indonesia is biggest palm oil production in the world accounted for 28 MT in 2014, Malaysia comes second with 19 MT in 2014. (FAO, 2014).

Luas lahan untuk sawit sekitar 11 juta ha.

Indonesia has a low biodiesel consumption, however it started to change in 2014, due to change in Indonesian policy which are:
Mandatory Biodiesel 10%, Peraturan Menteri ESDM No. 20/2014
Badan Pengelola Dana Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit, Keputusan Menteri Keuangan Nomor 113/PMK.01/2015

It is started to change, as indicated by IEA biodisel consumption
2014: 1241 (export -1512)
2013 932
2012 596
2011 318
2010 196
2009 56
2008 21 (export -543)

Apakah biodiesel akan berdampak buruk pada lingkungan? pastinya, ini butuh satu chapter sendiri mengenai sawit. Dan ekspansi sawit butuh satu chapter lagi tentang kaitannya dengan deforestasi dan kebakaran hutan.

Ref Gapki, Ref, Ref Gapki

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 5, 2017 at 10:25 am

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Biodiesel 101

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  • Palm Oil ($200/ton) merupakan feedstock biodiesel yang paling murah, dibandingkan Rapeseed EU ($900/ton), Soybean ($400/ton).
  • Palm Oil memberikan yield energy yang paling besar.
  • Feedstock yang paling banyak digunakan untuk biodiesel adalah Rapeseed, tapi setiap negara berbeda, US paling banyak adalah Soybean.
  • Biodiesel berhubungan dengan Palm oil, Palm oil expansion berhubungan dengan LUC, LUC berhubungan dengan Deforestation, Deforestation berhubungan dengan Forest Fire.
  • According to FAO Data, in 2010, Indonesia producing 21 MT of Palm Oil, from 5.78 M ha of land. However this analysis is difficult to made, for example according to BPS as of 2014 the land size is 11.4 Mha. Data is inaccurate, growth is high
  • Harga CPO sekitar $550/ton (2016)
  • Persentase sawit untuk biodiesel 7%

ref, ref

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juni 28, 2017 at 11:20 am

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Fakta vs Opini Biofuel: Karena masalah tidak melulu politik

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Fakta: Perkembangan biofuel 2006 tidak pesat
Opini 1: Penyebabnya adalah policy implementation yang tidak efektif (faktor top down command di daerah) diuji dengan contoh di desa (Amir et al 2008)
Opini 2: Penyebabnya adalah strategi yang tidak efektif, diuji dengan india/indonesia. India (biomass for households, biomass power, biofuels) vs Indonesia (biofuels, biomasspower, households), India Biogas dan secara umum transisi di India lebih cepat > (Singh and Setiawan 2013)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 16, 2017 at 12:25 pm

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