Anjar Priandoyo

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Sengketa Biodiesel Indonesia

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Sengketa biodiesel adalah masalah yang rumit. Berbeda dengan CPO, export biodiesel Indonesia >75% ke Eropa, sementara export CPO >70% ke Asia (India & China). Jadi kalau membaca dokumen European Parliament resolution of 4 April 2017 on palm oil and deforestation of rainforests sangat sedih. EU memang punya puluhan pertimbangan untuk memblokir produk sawit Indonesia. Baca salah satu point pertimbangannya saja, di salah satu point dibackup oleh IIASA, jangankan G2G, seorang Prof. Chairil Anwar Siregar akan kesulitan melawan opini tersebut.

Jadi ini perkara yang sangat serius.

Biofuel boleh dibilang baru mulai tahun 2005, seiring krisis energi dan PP Energy Mix.

Asosiasi Produsen Biofuel Indonesia (APROBI)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 7, 2017 at 1:11 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

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Ekspor Sawit

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Ekspor sawit kita yang 27 MT itu masuk dalam kategori HS 15-11, atau istilah lainya adalah RBD (Refined Bleached and Deodorized) Palm Olein atau RFM (Refining, Fractionation & Oil Modifications)

15 Name: Animal or vegetable fats and oils
Description: Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes

11 Name: Palm oil and its fractions
Description: Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified.

Variannya adalah:
Crude Palm Oil (Kode HS 151110000)
Other Palm Oil (Kode HS 151190000), Palm oil, other than crude, & fractions thereof , whether or not ref. but not chemically modified
Crude Oil of Palm Kernel (Kode HS 151321000)
Other Palm Kernel Oil (Kode HS 151329000)

Intinya belum dilakukan modifikasi kimia, jadi ini lahan dari Dept. Pertanian
https://comtrade.un.org/db/mr/rfCommoditiesList.aspx?px=H2&cc=1511

Ekspor turunan sawit yang secara kategori masuk HS 15-20 adalah glycerol, ini sudah lahan dari Dept. Perindustrian
1520 Name: Glycerol, crude; glycerol waters and glycerol lyes.
Description: Glycerol, crude; glycerol waters and glycerol lyes.

Ekspor turunan sawit masuk dalam kategori HS 38-23
Fatty Acid
3823110000 Stearic acids (detergents, soaps, and cosmetics)
3823120000 Oleic acids (soap as an emulsifying agent)
3823191000 Acids oil from refining

Fatty Alcohol (detergents and surfactants)
3823701000 Industry fatty alcohols in the form of wax
3823709000 Oth industry fatty alcohols in the form of wax

Gliserol (Cosmetic & In food and beverages, glycerol serves as a humectant, solvent, and sweetener, and may help preserve foods)
1520001000 Crude glycerol
1520009000 Glycerol waters & glycerol lyes
2905450000 Glycerol

Biodiesel
3826009010 Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)

Industrial monocarboxylic fatty acids

https://comtrade.un.org/db/mr/rfCommoditiesList.aspx?px=H2&cc=3823

Tahun 2013, porsi ekspor turunan sawit kita adalah:
Fatty Acid 537 kt
Fatty Alcohol 259 kt
Gliserol 485 kt
Biodiesel 1687 kt

Source: PROFIL INDUSTRI OLEOKIMIA DASAR DAN BIODIESEL – Kemenperin Report 2015

GIMNI Gabungan Industri Minyak Nabati Indonesia (GIMNI) Indonesian Vegetable Oil Association
Anggota asosiasi adalah berbasis industri “refineries”, yaitu mencakup proses pengolahan minyak nabati berupa Pemurnian Minyak Nabati (Refineries dan Fractionation), Kernel Crushing Plant (KCP) dan Copra Crushing Plant (CCP). Tahapan proses “refiners” ini sering juga disebut RFM (Refining, Fractionation & Oil Modifications).

GAPKI Gabungan Pengusaha Kelapa Sawit Indonesia (GAPKI) Indonesia Palm Oil Association (IPOA)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 6, 2017 at 11:09 am

Ditulis dalam Science

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Biodiesel Dilemma

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Kemarin saya ditanya kira-kira begini:
“Is production of palm oil for biofuel a significant factor in creating this huge environmental problem? Or may it become so in the future if expanded biofuel production is encouraged?”

Mau saya jawab:
“Iyalah sudah pasti, mau pengembangan apapun palm oil atau crude oil pasti akan berdampak besar pada lingkungan, namanya lingkungan pasti jadi korban. Indonesia adalah negara berkembang yang tingkat ekonominya menengah, artinya dalam posisi cash flow sulit. Income dari crude oil rendah, seiring dengan harga minyak rendah. Padahal sudah terlanjur banyak beban (e.g subsidi bahan bakar, subsidi perekonomian). Artinya mau tidak mau harus memikirkan bagaimana agar ekonominya meningkat, jualannya lebih laku.

Artinya semua akan dijual. Sawit akan dipush dijual sebanyak-banyaknya. Otomatis Biodiesel juga akan dipush dijual sebanyak-banyaknya.

Contoh, Indonesia rely dengan sawit, ada sekitar 11 juta lahan sawit. Produksinya sekitar 34 MT, dimana hampir 80%-nya atau sekitar 27 MT di ekspor. Bayangkan, diekspor mentah, padahal bisa lebih menguntungkan kalau di improve terlebih dahulu (hilirisasi), dijual dalam produk jadi.

Mungkin lebih baik saya jawab:
Biofuel production in Indonesia is closely related with Palm Oil production. There are 11 million ha of palm oil and producing around 34 MT, on which around 10 MT is for domestic (30%). In domestic consumption estimated around 70% is for palm oil margarine, while biodiesel is only around 10%, other is detergen.

So why biodiesel is selected by government is a number of reasons:
1.to absorb palm oil production (to save palm oil industry)
2.to help energy security
Where the first reason I think is the most dominant.

So jawaban pertanyaan diatas: Yes. It is getting worse (for environment), however for Indonesia is better for the economy. Average Indonesian will support this.

https://gapki.id/kemajuan-hilirisasi-minyak-sawit-indonesia/

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 5, 2017 at 10:49 am

Ditulis dalam Science

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Biodiesel dan Sawit

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Sebelum mengkritisi biodiesel, maka kita harus paham dulu mengenai dunia sawit.

Indonesia is biggest palm oil production in the world accounted for 28 MT in 2014, Malaysia comes second with 19 MT in 2014. (FAO, 2014).

Luas lahan untuk sawit sekitar 11 juta ha.

Indonesia has a low biodiesel consumption, however it started to change in 2014, due to change in Indonesian policy which are:
Mandatory Biodiesel 10%, Peraturan Menteri ESDM No. 20/2014
Badan Pengelola Dana Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit, Keputusan Menteri Keuangan Nomor 113/PMK.01/2015

It is started to change, as indicated by IEA biodisel consumption
2014: 1241 (export -1512)
2013 932
2012 596
2011 318
2010 196
2009 56
2008 21 (export -543)

Apakah biodiesel akan berdampak buruk pada lingkungan? pastinya, ini butuh satu chapter sendiri mengenai sawit. Dan ekspansi sawit butuh satu chapter lagi tentang kaitannya dengan deforestasi dan kebakaran hutan.

Ref Gapki, Ref, Ref Gapki

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juli 5, 2017 at 10:25 am

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Biodiesel 101

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  • Palm Oil ($200/ton) merupakan feedstock biodiesel yang paling murah, dibandingkan Rapeseed EU ($900/ton), Soybean ($400/ton).
  • Palm Oil memberikan yield energy yang paling besar.
  • Feedstock yang paling banyak digunakan untuk biodiesel adalah Rapeseed, tapi setiap negara berbeda, US paling banyak adalah Soybean.
  • Biodiesel berhubungan dengan Palm oil, Palm oil expansion berhubungan dengan LUC, LUC berhubungan dengan Deforestation, Deforestation berhubungan dengan Forest Fire.
  • According to FAO Data, in 2010, Indonesia producing 21 MT of Palm Oil, from 5.78 M ha of land. However this analysis is difficult to made, for example according to BPS as of 2014 the land size is 11.4 Mha. Data is inaccurate, growth is high
  • Harga CPO sekitar $550/ton (2016)
  • Persentase sawit untuk biodiesel 7%

ref, ref

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juni 28, 2017 at 11:20 am

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Fakta vs Opini Biofuel: Karena masalah tidak melulu politik

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Fakta: Perkembangan biofuel 2006 tidak pesat
Opini 1: Penyebabnya adalah policy implementation yang tidak efektif (faktor top down command di daerah) diuji dengan contoh di desa (Amir et al 2008)
Opini 2: Penyebabnya adalah strategi yang tidak efektif, diuji dengan india/indonesia. India (biomass for households, biomass power, biofuels) vs Indonesia (biofuels, biomasspower, households), India Biogas dan secara umum transisi di India lebih cepat > (Singh and Setiawan 2013)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 16, 2017 at 12:25 pm

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TIL that Biofuel Indonesia is complicated

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1.Why biofuel is not popular in Indonesia?
I, myself even know nothing about renewable energy in Indonesia, until around 2014. Now I start to realize why I did not know. It simple because the share of renewable is very low <5%, that's why people still believe that Indonesia has large oil reserve, and subsequently believe that the problem is because of corruption. Sad, maybe we did not realize that we are sinking.

2.But it should be growing right, we are in 2016?
Technically it just started post financial crisis, so somewhere in 2000s. But after financial crisis, everything is unstable right. There is national energy policy in 2005, updated again in 2014, well but it is too early to concluded that its successful. But we can concluded that it just started (in turbulance economy of course)

3.Wait, why it is complicated?
As usual, inefficient government, should not be blamed of course, involving
– conflicting policy: Energy Ministry (Biodiesel) vs Industry Ministry (LCGC)
– energy subsidy: biodiesel more expensive than diesel fuel
– low demand: flexi fuel vehicle is required
– infrastructure: gas station that sell biodiesel <10%

4.Wait, but Indonesia has second largest palm oil plantation in the world?
DEN member cited that Brazil has the ethanol used by 60% of BBM in their country. The same DEN cited that largest palm oil lead to biodiesel and even second generation of bioenergy can be generated. But the fact is ethanol in brazil only represented 17% by transport sector (or it can claim 50% by gasoline fleet market share). My point is Brazil has advantage and it is not a simple transition process.

5.Ok, Can we learn from Brazil?
Well we need to remember that Saudi start their transition in 1930s with their deal with US company for oil exploration and after second world war begin as the leader in oil industry. So the Brazil history also should be understood as the process that begin in 1532 of sugarcane cultivation, and before the rise of Saudi it also begin to producing ethanol for war. The modern ethanol fuel begin in with 1970s, not far from the first oil crisis. But the story of Brazil ethanol is complicated, in 2009 it cited that ethanol used by 66% of gasoline vehicle, but in Nov 2013, it is only used by 23% flex-fuel vehicle.

6.But, can we compare with Brazil?
No, Indonesia is 20th largest energy consumption, Brazil is 10th largest. Comparing energy consumption is difficult because Indonesia is in tropical country which technically need less energy than people in subtropical country. (Brazil is tropical country btw)

7.Ok, what can we learn from other country?
US for example because of it's position is better to grow corn, instead of sugarcane. But it is more complicated. Don't forget US is incomparable with Indonesia. ref, ref, ref

8.How about fuel yield
From here as follow, number seems promising but it still lower than fossil fuel.

Ethanol
– Sugar beet (France) 714
– Sugarcane (Brazil) 662
– Cassava (Nigeria) 410
– Sweet Sorghum (India) 374
– Corn (U.S.) 354
– Wheat (France) 277

Biodiesel
– Oil palm 508
– Coconut 230
– Rapeseed 102
– Peanut 90
– Sunflower 82
– Soybean 56

9.Ok, I know this is debate food vs fuel right?
Not really, there are some of crop that only used for generate energy, which called energy crop such as jatropha (Jarak Pagar). The energy crop is also complicated.

10.Final question: Why biofuel is not used (prioritized, focussed) in Indonesia?
It is not a right question. It just like asking why there is no endpoint in circle? It is because of circle definition is the one with no endpoint. Indonesia can be defined as developing countries, so it can be defined by not having an advantage energy system.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Juni 10, 2016 at 11:32 am

Ditulis dalam Science

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