Posts Tagged ‘Environment’
Environmental quality is a powerful determinant of health expenditure in developing countries, Yahaya et al 2015, from a social sciences journal, using 125 health care data developing countries.
Yesterday, I attend a discussion on air pollution. It was interesting event due to the panelist come from two different perspective. The first group is from health economics (Epidemiologist), the second group is from environmental economics (Ecologist). The main speaker (or the third group) is from Economics (economist) that study air pollution.
The challenges that we face such as:
– How to quantify human health in term of monetary e.g 200,000 USD
– How to ensure that policy can be implemented (will developing countries able to follow)
– How is our understanding with the current air pollution pattern
My response, I am quite surprise (still), that a lot of people thinking the air pollution solution, from the perspective in quantitative measurement (market failure, taxation) to health and ecology in general. The biggest challenge I think is not only on the scientific level, but also in implementation level. For example how my country able to react in the same “awareness” like other country did.
A. What is Life? how its begin
According to biologist, a life is way of things to reproduce. The main purpose of life is to reproduce, therefore all of its function built to support reproduction ability, which the second purpose of life is to eat (obtain and consume energy). The cycle of life is to reproduce and to eat. A single life (individual) is a process from born to died which the main purpose is to survived. A life begin from chemical and mechanical reactions. A dependency of energy is inhereted since the early creation of living things.
According to humanity, A life is interpreted in multiple of ways.
B. How to Live?
To survive, a living things must obtain energy -which the consequences that an individual must use any inherited competitive advantage that he has. A living things like tiger or mushrooms could not sustain without consuming others living things. Tiger must hunt, killed and eat a deer while a mushrooms eat a dead animal or plants. A plants in otherhand can perform self sustain by building its own food using energy from sun, a process called photosynthesis. In other hand, an advance living things like Leaf Cutter Ant build their own agriculture in a their complex sociality structure.
According to humanity, How to live is interpreted in multiple of ways.
C. Why Sociality? how we need it?
Plants is the only living things that can self sustain using photosynthesis, the most advance living things that can grow without any help from others. Thats why plants cannot move, because it does not need to. However being plants is bad, because it all the surrounding forces like wind, ocean wave, cloud and rain is moving. When living things decided to move, they loose their ability to self sustain, they need to obtain energy from others.
Most of living things, might gather energy from other weaker living things -called Food Chain. Or in popular terms it called “Law of Jungle, Every Man for Himself, Survival of the Fittest”. That is why, most animal is subsocial (Solitary). Most of animal is subsociality, they are not living together (cohabit), they live by their own (solitary) just like jaguar or tiger that hunt by themself.
Other advance animal built their own social system which can be Solitary but Social (Communal) e.g Orangutan or Tarsius, they are solitary animal they live together. In some cases they are monogamous. Quasisocial, they perform cooperative care of young. An animal that works together as parents. Semisocial, they build division of labour and caste system. And the most advance one with including overlapping generations is called Eusocial.
According to humanity, society is interpreted in multiple of ways
Apa itu pencemaran
Segala aktivitas manusia membawa dampak negatif pada lingkungan. Apapun yang kita lakukan mulai dari bangun tidur, mandi, makan, berangkat kerja hingga menggunakan hp membawa dampak negatif pada lingkungan. Pencemaran atau polusi, bisa didefinisikan sebagai segala hal yang berdampak negatif (membahayakan) lingkungan.
Dampak negatif pada lingkungan bisa dilihat dari beberapa dimensi:
- Dimensi wujud (state of matter): pencemaran bisa berwujud padat (sampah/waste), cair (sewage), gas (polusi/iklim)
- Dimensi energy (energy form): suara (noise), visual, thermodynamics (hot/cold), kinetics (vibration)
Mengapa isu lingkungan tidak populer ?
Isu lingkungan tidak pernah menjadi isu populer (sepertinya sampai kapanpun dan dimanapun). Lembaga riset di US seperti Gallup mendudukan isu lingkungan di isu peringkat 17 paling populer dan Pew Research di peringkat 13. Jauh sekali magnitude (impact)-nya dibandingkan dengan isu ekonomi (pengangguran, upah, kesehatan, pendidikan), sosial (kejahatan, terorisme, kemiskinan, kekerasan), politik (korupsi, hukum).
Isu lingkungan tidaklah populer disebabkan beberapa hal:
- Pencemaran merupakan akibat dari aktivitas manusia yang tidak dapat dihindari (inevitable). Setiap pembangunan mengakibatkan adanya dampak dari pembangunan tersebut. Yang bisa dilakukan terhadap pencemaran adalah mengurangi. Berbeda dibandingkan dengan isu kesehatan atau pendidikan, orang bisa memilih untuk tidak mendapatkan akses kesehatan dan pendidikan. Atau kemiskinan dan kejahatan yang suatu saat bisa dihilangkan.
- Pencemaran memiliki konsekuensi yang panjang e.g 3 tahun, 50 tahun atau 100 tahun. Dalam area yang sangat luas e.g dampaknya bagi penduduk satu kota atau satu wilayah tertentu. Akibatnya manusia seringkali tidak memikirkan dampak karena pertimbangan collective tersebut.
Bagaimana menyikapi pencemaran?
Masalah pencemaran adalah masalah dalam domain publik yang pasti ada. Saat ini beberapa saintis sedang mempelajari bagaimana cara menyelesaikan masalah ini, misalnya:
- 1950 Kuznets curve theory, teori ini menyatakan bahwa masalah pencemaran (inequality) akan selesai setelah tingkat ekonomi tertentu tercapai. Kurang lebih artinya masyarakat Indonesia akan menyadari pentingnya lingkungan jika ekonominya sudah mapan -orang baru akan aware dengan masalah kesehatan kalau sudah kaya (makanan organik kan mahal)
- 1999 GS Fields Distribution & Development, teori ini menyatakan bahwa masalah pencemaran tidak ada polanya “The pattern is that there is no pattern”. Teori ini mengkritisi Teori Kuznets yang sejak tahun 1991-an dipakai menjadi rujukan penelitian lingkungan.
A. What is Energy?
Capacity to do work, to move an object
What is Energy System?
Its coverage of supply, transmission/distribution, and demand (transport, domestics, industry)
B. What is consequences of Energy?
Environmental aspect of energy:
- Caused: Scarcity of woods (lead to coal), availability of wind (lead to wind turbine)
- Consequences: Air pollution and GHG
Political-Economy aspects of energy
- Mechanism: Laura et al (2012) indicating economic background e.g 15% of LUC emissions in Indonesia is due to export.
- Structure: always an economic driven policy
Social aspects of energy
– Caused & Consequences: Rehman et al (2012) indicating social background e.g inequity in access, skewed specific fuel, skewed supply and vested interest.
Research type: Primary Descriptive Observation (PR) (measurement of something)
- Data input: Primary Data (Level of pollution, taking using specific device for one year)
- Sample: Rashid et al (2014), Santoso et al (2013, 2011), Both et al (2013), Browne et al (1999)
- Hypothesis: The level of air pollution estimated to be certain number
- Data output: Data (accurate, very expensive in effort, conclusion is not required)
Research type: Primary Descriptive Observation with Conclusion (PRC)
- Sample: Kondo et al (2006)
- Data output: Result: the number of air pollution in 2005 is lower than the 2001, due to lead restriction policy. Conclusion: Lead restriction policy should be implemented.
Research Type: Secondary Descriptive Literature (SL)
- Data input: Secondary data (journal, literature, statistical data)
- Sample: Haryanto et al (2011), Santosa et al (2008), Budya et al (2011)
Research type: Secondary Descriptive Observation (SR) (is there any impact of something)
- Data input: Primary data (questionnaire)
- Sample: Duki et al (2003) questionnaire of 16,000+, effect of air pollution on health
- Hypothesis: There is correlation between air pollution and health
- Data output: Correlation
Research type: Correlation Analytical (CO) (is there any impact of something)
- Data input: Secondary data e.g from hospital
- Sample: Resosudarmo (2003) study the effect of air pollution on health, Ostro (1994), Andarini (2014) on fuel conversion
- Hypothesis: There is correlation between air pollution and health
- Data output: Correlation
Research type: Modelling Analytical (MO) / Simulation (how big is the impact of something)
- Data input: Secondary data e.g from IEA statistics
- Sample: Shresta et al (2002, 2005), Cahyono et al (2007), Nugroho (2015)
- Hypothesis: Estimated number of pollution would be certain number
- Data output: Data e.g estimated pollution, electricity capacity
Research type: Development (DE) (how to reduce the impact of something)
- Data output: New policy (new model, new perspective)
I am not health expert, however reading this reports makes me confuse -in a sense that I feel that the quantification of data might not be as accurate as I think. This for Indonesia case:
- WHO Environmental Burden of Disease 2009. Diarrhoea is responsible for 31,700 death / year, indoor air is 45,300, outdoor air is 32,000
US CDC 2013, Malaria is 40,000 death / year
OECD 2014. Health Spending of GDP 3% (OECD 9.3%), Doctor per 1000 population 0.3 (OECD 3.2), Nurse per 1000 population 1 (OECD 8.8)
USAID 2015, 500,000 TB case/year, 65,000 TB related death in Indonesia
Data: Source & Analysis is expensive
Data source is very very expensive. The accuracy of air pollution measurement is a luxury that only research agency like BATAN that can perform it using specific device, covering at least one year duration, in various large scale place. Something like Santoso et al 2011, 2013 research with ambient air pollution data.
Even with the availability of data, the analysis of data is also expensive. For example, Ostro (World Bank, 1994) and later Resosudarmo & Napitupulu (ANU, 2004) state that the measurement of health impact of air pollution is difficult due to methodological challenge as follows:
- Dose-Response functions, are from studies in North America
- Grid System Dispersion Model, is not detailed
- Annual average level or air pollution
- Pollutant Coverage, limited to (PM10, NO2 and SO2)