Anjar Priandoyo

Catatan Setiap Hari

Posts Tagged ‘Pollution

Peneliti, Dosen, Text Book

leave a comment »

Di buku teksnya Richard Boubel (c419) dibahas mengenai emission inventory sebagai sebuah cara untuk menghitung nilai emisi disuatu daerah. Menarik di buku teks selalu dibahas alternative-nya, selain emisi inventory yaitu monitoring source pollutantnya dan monitoring ambient airnya.

Menarik.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Mei 16, 2017 at 6:41 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Flaring Gas di Indonesia

leave a comment »

Pernah punya data yang di flare di Indonesia sekitar 60%. Nigeria sekitar 75%.
Data-data gini nih yang susahnya minta ampun nyarinya.

The Potential Reduction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions from Gas Flaring in Nigeria’s Oil and Gas Industry through Alternative Productive Use
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3298/3/4/31/htm

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Mei 12, 2017 at 1:47 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Air Pollutant Analysis

leave a comment »

Air Pollutant yang paling bermasalah adalah CO2. Di US GHG-nya 84% terdiri dari CO2, disusul Methane 9%, N2O 5% dan Flurorinated Gases 2%.

N2O: Nitrous Oxide
NO2: Nitrogen Dioxide

CO2 Carbon Dioxide, current concentration 400 ppm
CH4 Methane, concentration 1.8 ppm
N20 Nitrous Oxide, concentration 0.3 ppm
CO Carbon Monoxide, natural concentration 0.2 ppm, toxic if above 35 ppm

SO2 1 ppm

http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html

CO is more toxic than CO2, CO reacts with the hemoglobin in our blood streams

Aside from man-made sources, a great deal of carbon monoxide comes from the chemical oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons in our atmosphere. Additional natural sources include emission from vegetation and the world’s oceans. By far the largest sink for carbon monoxide is its reaction with OH in the atmosphere, as noted previously. However, a small but significant amount is also lost from the atmosphere through deposition on the ground.

Human Impact

Today more than half of carbon monoxide emissions are man-made

The largest human source of carbon dioxide emissions is from the combustion of fossil fuels. This produces 87% of human carbon dioxide emissions

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Mei 1, 2017 at 6:04 am

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Indonesia Gas Flaring Statistics

leave a comment »

Mengingat awal perjalanan saya memutuskan untuk mengambil jalur penelitian. Rasanya tidak salah jika saya mengambil konsentrasi pada aspek lingkungan. Mengapa? karena doktrin ilmu lingkungan jelas “GHG berbahaya”, “Air Pollution bisa diukur”, dan berbagai pendekatan yang lebih “jelas” dibandingkan dengan aspek “Managerial” seperti Management, Humanities atau Business.

Contoh melihat industri migas misalnya, orang bisnis pasti akan berpikir bagaimana meningkatkan produksi, namun ketika ditanya bagaimana pendekatan ilmiahnya, pasti akan masuk ke matematical model. Sementara bila ditanyakan pada orang accounting/management maka solusi sciencenya adalah accountabilitas.

Sementara dari kacamata orang environment, science sesimple bahwa setiap proses pasti ada unwanted substance yang harus diremove. Makanya untuk mendapatkan statistics gas flaring sebenarnya mudah, karena selain sudah banyak dianalisa bahwa ini berbahaya, peraturan-peraturan juga mulai disusun untuk mencegahnya, misal lewat KLH.

270-350 MMCFD (2008)
357.5 MMSCFD (2009)

equivalent to 10% annual Indonesia consumption
approx 60% more than Indonesia’s total gas production

http://photos.state.gov/libraries/indonesia/502679/energyrountable/Panel%202_2%20Bent%20Svensson%20Feb%206.pdf
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGGFR/Resources/578035-1164215415623/3188029-1324042883839/6_Indonesia_Developing_Gas_Flaring_Reduction_Policy.pdf
http://ccsi.columbia.edu/files/2014/03/Indonesia-APG-Utilization-Study-July-2014-CCSI1.pdf

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Maret 8, 2017 at 1:35 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Energy & Air Pollution Link in One Chart

leave a comment »

power-plant-gas-WHO Reducing Global Health Risk 2015 (148p)

Solution? Fuel Switching or Technology Fix.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 12, 2016 at 1:07 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with ,

Big 6 of Air Pollution

leave a comment »

CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, HFCs, SF6 (Kyoto Protocol Six Greenhouse Gases)
PM, CO, NO2, SO2, Pb, O3 (US EPA Six Air Pollutant)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 7, 2016 at 7:41 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Energy and Air Pollution

leave a comment »

A. Pricing
Energy pricing is indirect tool for reducing emissions, attractiveness of this tool depend on cost of monitoring and enforcement. An analysis of various energy type (electricity, coal, diesel, natural gas) with respect to various pollutant (TSP, SOX, NOX, VOC, CO) indicated that there is a relation of energy composition and pollutant composition, which can be argued that there is a model/tool that can reduced the pollution with main consideration: price (Eskeland, 1994, World Bank)

Pollutant: Various (TSP, SOX, NOX, VOC, CO)
Finding/background (indirect related with research): Fossil fuel is cheap, electricity is expensive
Conclusion: Certain fuel has bigger pollutant
Implications: To reduce pollution (to encouraged people use cleaner energy) subsidy given to clean energy.

B. Social Cost Damage
Energy Sector (4): Oil & Gas Extraction, Coal Mining, Electricity Generation, Oil Refineries

C. Health Impact
Pollutant: PM
Conclusion: fossil fuel is threatning health
Implications: To reduce pollution, we need to use an energy that has lower impact with health

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 7, 2016 at 6:52 am

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with ,