Anjar Priandoyo

Simple Advice for Everyone

Posts Tagged ‘Pollution

Indonesia Gas Flaring Statistics

leave a comment »

Mengingat awal perjalanan saya memutuskan untuk mengambil jalur penelitian. Rasanya tidak salah jika saya mengambil konsentrasi pada aspek lingkungan. Mengapa? karena doktrin ilmu lingkungan jelas “GHG berbahaya”, “Air Pollution bisa diukur”, dan berbagai pendekatan yang lebih “jelas” dibandingkan dengan aspek “Managerial” seperti Management, Humanities atau Business.

Contoh melihat industri migas misalnya, orang bisnis pasti akan berpikir bagaimana meningkatkan produksi, namun ketika ditanya bagaimana pendekatan ilmiahnya, pasti akan masuk ke matematical model. Sementara bila ditanyakan pada orang accounting/management maka solusi sciencenya adalah accountabilitas.

Sementara dari kacamata orang environment, science sesimple bahwa setiap proses pasti ada unwanted substance yang harus diremove. Makanya untuk mendapatkan statistics gas flaring sebenarnya mudah, karena selain sudah banyak dianalisa bahwa ini berbahaya, peraturan-peraturan juga mulai disusun untuk mencegahnya, misal lewat KLH.

270-350 MMCFD (2008)
357.5 MMSCFD (2009)

equivalent to 10% annual Indonesia consumption
approx 60% more than Indonesia’s total gas production

http://photos.state.gov/libraries/indonesia/502679/energyrountable/Panel%202_2%20Bent%20Svensson%20Feb%206.pdf
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGGFR/Resources/578035-1164215415623/3188029-1324042883839/6_Indonesia_Developing_Gas_Flaring_Reduction_Policy.pdf
http://ccsi.columbia.edu/files/2014/03/Indonesia-APG-Utilization-Study-July-2014-CCSI1.pdf

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Maret 8, 2017 at 1:35 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Energy & Air Pollution Link in One Chart

leave a comment »

power-plant-gas-WHO Reducing Global Health Risk 2015 (148p)

Solution? Fuel Switching or Technology Fix.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 12, 2016 at 1:07 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with ,

Big 6 of Air Pollution

leave a comment »

CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, HFCs, SF6 (Kyoto Protocol Six Greenhouse Gases)
PM, CO, NO2, SO2, Pb, O3 (US EPA Six Air Pollutant)

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 7, 2016 at 7:41 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Energy and Air Pollution

leave a comment »

A. Pricing
Energy pricing is indirect tool for reducing emissions, attractiveness of this tool depend on cost of monitoring and enforcement. An analysis of various energy type (electricity, coal, diesel, natural gas) with respect to various pollutant (TSP, SOX, NOX, VOC, CO) indicated that there is a relation of energy composition and pollutant composition, which can be argued that there is a model/tool that can reduced the pollution with main consideration: price (Eskeland, 1994, World Bank)

Pollutant: Various (TSP, SOX, NOX, VOC, CO)
Finding/background (indirect related with research): Fossil fuel is cheap, electricity is expensive
Conclusion: Certain fuel has bigger pollutant
Implications: To reduce pollution (to encouraged people use cleaner energy) subsidy given to clean energy.

B. Social Cost Damage
Energy Sector (4): Oil & Gas Extraction, Coal Mining, Electricity Generation, Oil Refineries

C. Health Impact
Pollutant: PM
Conclusion: fossil fuel is threatning health
Implications: To reduce pollution, we need to use an energy that has lower impact with health

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 7, 2016 at 6:52 am

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with ,

Particulate Matter and Energy Policies

leave a comment »

The potential contribution of RE in air pollution abatement have been identified by various study (Boudri et al, 2002) (Mohibullah et al, 2006) especially in the area of CO2, SO2 or CH4. However there is limited study on the area of PM, which has the short duration on health impact.

To reduce PM from RE perspective can be seen as:
1. Replace the fossil fuel with RE (power plant, stove, vehicle)
2. Build new RE

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 1, 2016 at 6:50 am

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Renewable Energy & Air Pollution Connection: Energy Density & Emission Intensity

with one comment

I learned that we need to build model as simple as possible, using measurement that easy to understood. There would be no universal model that explain in “unity of knowledge” or “theory of everything” style. But, at certain point, it is very helpful to have such simple explanation.

For example, here is two important measurement ref:
Density: Space Dimension
Energy Density: Amount of energy per region of space (volume, mass, area)
Emission Density: Amount of Emission per region of space (volume, mass, area)
Intensity:
Emission Intensity: Amount of CO2 per energy generated: Impact Dimension

1. Deforestation ref, ref, ref
Deforestation contributes 6–17% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (Baccini et al, 2012)
Brazil and Indonesia has 35% of total carbon stored in tropical forests.
Deforestration 2000-2010 estimated to be 1 PgC/year (~Indonesia 10% tropical forest, 10 TgC/year)
Indonesia Deforestation Rate 0.8 million ha / year
Brazil Deforestation rate 0.4 million ha / year
Emission Intensity: Forestry Residue: 38 kg Co2e/Mwh 90% coal, 83% gas
Emission Density: 10TgC/0.8 million ha / year
Energy Density: 0 – depend on the forest product

2. Forest Fire
1982 Forest Fire ref
Size: 3.5 million ha

1997 Forest Fire (Page et al, 2002)
Size: 6.8 million ha
Emission: 2.5 Gt C02

2015 Forest Fire
Size: 4.2 million ha (GOI), 2.6 million ha (WB)
Emission: 1.0 Gt CO2 (WRI)
Cost: $16 b (WB)

Indonesia Forest
Indonesia Forest Size 98 million ha ref
Deforestration rates 99 million ha in 32 years
Logging 0.8 billion cubit feet per year (official ministry of forestry)
Illegal Logging: 1.8 billion cubit feet per year
Total Logging: 2.6 billion cubit feet per year

Emission Density: 1 Gt CO2 / 4.2 million ha

3. Tambora 1815 Volcanic Activity
Size: 1,2 km deep of Caldera
Energy: 1.4 x 10E20 Joule (25% of annual energy consumption) (ref)
Mass: 150 Gt Magma, 60 Tg Sulfur, 100 Tg chlorine (as HCl), 70 Tg fluorine
Volume: 175 km 3 Volcanic Ash
Co2 Emission: very small (ref USGS), (ref),

4. Palm Oil Plantation
Palm Oil Plantation Area 2011 7.8 million ha ref

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Januari 22, 2016 at 5:43 am

Ditulis dalam Science

Tagged with

Air Pollution and Renewable Energy Study

leave a comment »

Energy can be argue, one of the most important sector in our life. Energy is a wide area, it can be from energy itself for example the science of energy generation, energy efficiency, energy potential. It was one of the most interesting choice to learn, especially it will work with lab and very focussed research. The second level of choice is to find the relation of energy with other subject e.g with policy, economy, or environment. In my case, I am interested in relation with environmental impact of energy.

Well, now I realize that the “Information System” that I took in undergraduate is not as complicated as “Energy Environment System”

“There is empirical support for the positive impacts of local energy saving regulations and two environmental standards (air pollutants for coal-burning oil-burning gas-fired boilers) and limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from vehicle compression ignition engines”
The impacts of provincial energy and environmental policies on air pollution control in China here

“In the past five years (1998–2002), the environment, economic and energy (3E) policies in Taiwan have switched from regulation establishment, information and technology transfer, and training and education in the early development stage, to provide assistance incentives and financial support to industries in adoption of renewable energy”
Overview of environmental impacts, prospects and policies for renewable energy in Taiwan here

“The introduction of “renewable” hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles instead of gasoline can lead to economically effective reductions of AP emissions only if the efficiency of a fuel cell vehicle is about two times higher than that of an internal combustion one. The results provide a useful economic evaluation of air pollution emissions mitigation by the introduction of renewable wind and solar energy sources.”
Air pollution reduction via use of green energy sources for electricity and hydrogen production, Canada here

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Desember 31, 2015 at 5:08 pm

Ditulis dalam Business

Tagged with