Anjar Priandoyo

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Posts Tagged ‘Theory

Energy in Indonesia

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1.Introduction
Energy in Indonesia is problematic, some people think that the people that involve (actors) in energy development is not effective by using MLP the local implementor does not have capacity, the regulation is conflicting. From innovation point of view there is no incentive on the innovation which can refer to innovation theory. Other factors can be attributed to environment and geographical factors.

Energy transition is used as framework to understand this problematic situation.

2.Definition (aka comparison)

3.Dimension of energy (aka component, system, factors)

Heading 1: Chapter
Heading 2: Sub Chapter e.g Energy Transition Theory
Heading 3: Comparison of theory (mlp, innovation)
Heading 3: Dimension of selected theory (mlp)

Heading 1: Chapter
Heading 2: Sub Chapter e.g Energy Transition in Indonesia
Heading 3: System
Heading 3: Transition
Heading 3: Policy

Well, looks good.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Mei 3, 2017 at 12:43 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

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Corruption in Indonesia

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Corruption in developing country is prevalent. There are several perspective on the root cause of corruption in Indonesia. Corruption can be caused by cultural aspect where the subordinate staff will agree with every instruction from the supervisor. The cultural aspect is align with Principle Agent Problem theory, where the staff that doing corruption will not feeling guilty even feels protected by the roles of “bapak” paternal leader in organization.

Coruption also can be explained by using conflict of interest theory, where a lot of bureucratic position is also a political position. Important position such as state own company commissioner or department ministry has a strong tie with political party. Therefore any government agenda will have a direct conflicting interest with businessperson that supporting political party.

Corruption also because of the morality of people where it can be explain using rent-seeking theory where a government agent is looking for money from the rent activity such as oil gas exploration contract or and government procurement.

(So out of several perspective on corruption which perspective is the most effective? well, from science point of view, scientist must say that they bet on one theory, for example conflicting theory or politial settlement, which translated in to ACA/KPK. However scientist can conclude that ACA is not effective by using quantitative approach, but scientist can argue that eventhough is not effective is important factors (see how strange is social science))

A.Cultural Aspect of Corruption (aka Principle Agent Theory)
Indonesia is known has an eastern culture or reactive multiactive culture (Lewis Culture model). This is where father has a greater role in family. It can be explained due to the agriculture system where it need a bigger population with rigid structure (e.g caste system) in order to survive. This culture plays important role in the growth of corruption which most of corruption is taken in the form of family group (dynasty).

B.Where and How (aka Motive)
More evidence on political party corruption indicating that political party play bigger roles. In term of political settlement theory. This trend is increasingly bigger and reflecting the economic size of coruption.

C.Conclusion
With so many corruption case in Indonesia, combating corruption is serious subject. Government put priority, but study says that there is no significant decline in corruption eradication. However, it should be noted that (this statement depend on which preference that I choose) it should be priority given to rent-seeking theory, which the economic aspect should be put as priority.

Notes:
This MSc thesis compare three corruption theory: Principle Agent, Collective Action, Political Settlement
http://www.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/pdf/Dissertations/2014-NicolaiSchulz.pdf

This PHd thesis explore deeper on corruption theory.
http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/891/1/Bratu_Actors%20practices%20and%20networks%20of%20corruption.pdf

nice quote here “research of an exploratory nature cannot, in a sense, reach any conclusion”

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Mei 3, 2017 at 12:20 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

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AHA Social Theory, Pseudoscience and Protoscience

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Kesimpulannya:

Social theories are frameworks of empirical evidence used to study and interpret social phenomena

Social theories is a tool used by social scientists relating to historical debates over the most valid and reliable methodologies between:

  • positivism vs antipositivism
  • structure or agency
  • scientific, descriptive, and objective vs conflict theories, normative positions, critique the ideological aspects inherent in conventional, traditional thought

Ini nampaknya akar permasalahan utama yang saya hadapi selama hampir 2 tahun menulis. Social theory itu hanya sekedar framework untuk menginterpretasikan fenomena sosial. Jadi, kalau saya bercerita mengenai Indonesia, maka saya akan berkata

“Indonesia itu negara miskin (subyektif merefer ke GDP), ini disebabkan oleh korupsi oleh birokrat (subyektif merujuk ke principle agent problem theory), dimana pelaku korupsi hanya mengikuti instruksi bosnya.

Ini bisa juga saya revise menjadi

“Indonesia itu negara miskin, ini disebabkan oleh korupsi oleh birokrat (subyektif merujuk ke conflict of interest theory), dimana birokrat yang dipilih juga pejabat partai.

Bahkan bisa juga direvise menjadi

“Ini disebabkan oleh korupsi oleh birokrat, dalam rangka untuk mencari rente (rent-seeking theory).”

Daripada menulis dengan gaya sosial saintis seperti diatas, yang multiinterpretasi. Saya akan menulis dengan gaya deskriptif berupa

“Korupsi di Indonesia sudah terjadi sejak tahun 1960-an (merujuk ke empirical evidence data korupsi). Pelaku korupsi kebanyakan dari birokrat yang motifnya disuruh atasan (merujuk ke contoh kasus), perkoncoan (merujuk ke contoh kasus). Fenomena ini sejalan dengan pendapat para peneliti yang mengatakan bahwa negara berkembang terjebak korupsi (contoh kasus)”

Dengan gaya yang kedua ini, contoh kasus lebih bersifat deskriptif yang difokuskan dalam lingkup bernegara.

Semoga. Kita lihat hasilnya.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Mei 3, 2017 at 11:40 am

Ditulis dalam Science

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AHA Energy Transition Literature Review

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Critical Review aka “How can I answer a question without actually answering the question?”

1.This chapter will explore the existing literature of energy transition in order to optimise future energy supply and use given demand. Particular focus will be given to Indonesia.

Generally there are two common analytical approach to understand the energy transition. The first approach are quantitative system modelling and the second approach is social sciences approach. Both of this two approach are widely used to explore the possible future of energy transition.

“Energy modelling are powerful ways of exploring the dynamics of systems and hence play a crucial role in thinking about how those systems might develop in the future. A wide variety of models have been developed to inform the transition to a low carbon economy, and these have generated robust insights into the likely importance and roles of various
technologies, trends and policy instruments”

2.(What is energy transition) There a number of approach to energy transition has been identified by many study.

3.(Energy transition in Indonesia) Indonesia is developing country.

4.Energy transition approach (critiques)
4.1 Energy transition modelling

4.2 Energy transition scenarios

5.(Argument) Integrated approach might be helpful

“We suggest an integration strategy based on alignment, bridging, and iteration, arguing that a structured dialogue between practitioners of different approaches is needed” (Turnheim et al 2015)

“We suggest that bridging, based on sequential and interactive articulation of different approaches, may generate a more comprehensive and useful chain of assessments to support policy formation and action” (Geels et al 2016)

6.Conclusion
Combination approach is important.

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

April 20, 2017 at 1:54 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

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Mana yang kita pilih

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Untuk menjelaskan mengapa sebuah mobil bisa laku sementara mobil yang lain tidak kita bisa menggunakan sudut pandang Customer Experience Theory, kita bisa membandingkan antara BMW dan Mercedes. BMW kesan pengalamannya adalah anak muda sementara Mercedes kesannya adalah orang tua. Namun kesan saja tidak cukup, bisa juga dilihat dari sisi asosiasi, BMW mengasosiakan diri dengan kemandirian (bengkel yang ok) sementara Mercedes dengan kemapanan (ada club member).

Namun, kalau samplenya ditarik lebih luas lagi, maka akan lebih rumit. Misalnya membandingkan antara Lamborgini (IT), BMW (DE) dan Lexus (JP) misalnya. Semuanya sama-sama luxury car, namun Lambo lebih mengesankan anak muda yang mapan.

Kalau ujungnya menjelaskan “bagaimana menjual mobil” maka sudut pandangnya bisa saja tidak sekelas. Misalnya, tidak melulu dijelaskan melalui sudut pandangan customer yang se-segmen e.g mobil mewah atau mobil keluarga. Tapi, bisa juga menjelaskan secara vertikal. Misalnya mengapa Toyota yang punya mobil mewah, mobil keluarga dan mobil lgcc bisa merajai mobil di Indonesia. Tapi bahkan juga bisa membandingkannya dengan Honda yang tidak hanya punya mobil tapi juga punya motor.

Sama seperti Indonesia, kita bisa memilih:

  1. “Geels Transition Theory”, dimana Transisi juga terjadi pada Energy (BMW), Residential (Mercedes), atau melihat antara BMW X5 dengan Mercedes G di kelas SUV.
  2. “Similar Transition Theory” (e.g Innovation, Geographies etc). Atau melihat transisi sebagai sesuatu yang berbeda.
  3. “Similar Transition Approach” quantitative vs qualitative

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

April 20, 2017 at 1:10 pm

Ditulis dalam Science

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Teori Perkembangan Islam di Indonesia

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Dari pelajaran IPS di SMA, ada tiga pendapat besar mengenai bagaimana islam bisa masuk ke Indonesia. Tiga teori yang paling populer diantaranya:

  1. Teori Gujurat 13M: Snouck Hurgronje, J. Pijnapel, J.P. Moquetta, Soetjipto
  2. Teori Mekah 7M: Hamka, A.H. Johns (Sufi Theory)
  3. Teori Persia: Hoesein Djajadiningrat
  4. Teori China 7M: Fatimi, Sumanto Al Qurtuby

Namun, bila pandangan ini dilihat lebih jauh. Maka, konsekuensinya akan lebih kompleks. Semisal, teori yang digunakan adalah Gujurat/Sufism, maka islam yang berkembang adalah islam misticism, dan bila pandangan ini digunakan maka bisa menjelaskan, kenapa proses islamisasi masuk terlambat (awal 1500 dibandingkan yang lain e.g malacca di 1300) namun terjadi dengan cepat (50 tahun melalui Wali sanga), dimensi yang lebih kompleks lagi bagaimana hubungannya dengan keruntuhan Majapahit.

Namun perkembangan Islam di Indonesia ini bukannya satu-satunya misteri yang kompleks. Misteri ini yang dalam istilah sains disebut Historiography juga terjadi pada keruntuhan kekaisaran romawi.

Menarik. Semakin banyak teori mungkin membuat anak sekolah bingung, namun dari sisi ilmu pengetahuan, semakin banyaknya teori justru memperkaya gudang keilmuan yang ada.

Wali Sanga (Maulana Malik Ibrahim 1419)
Marco Polo (1292) Muslim Perlak
Zheng He first voyage (1405-1407)
Majapahit (1293–1527)
Demak Sultanate (1475–1554)
Malacca Sultanate 1400
Abd al-Qadir alJilani (1077–1166)
Ibn Battuta (1304–77) claimed, around 1345, Samudra-Pasai Shafi’i

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historiography_of_the_fall_of_the_Western_Roman_Empire
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historiography_of_early_Islam
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fazlur_Rahman_Malik
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wali_Sanga
http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s9571.pdf

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Februari 26, 2017 at 11:05 am

Ditulis dalam Science

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Urbanization and Origin of Indonesian Ancestor

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Origin of Indonesian Ancestor is subject to debate. Preliminary research usually using sociological approach, but the latest research using advance biology which more accurate in predicting event in 50,000 years ago.

  • Campha, Cambodia. Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern (b 1833) Linguist
  • Central Asia. Robert von Heine-Geldern (b 1885) Ethnologist
  • Yunna, Mekong river migration (1889)
  • New Guinea (1965)
  • Taiwan (1997), Molecular Biology/Mitochondrial DNA approach

In 1500 the biggest cities in the world are:

  1. Beijing, 672k
  2. Vijayanagar, 500k
  3. Cairo, 400k
  4. Hangzhou, 250k
  5. Tabriz, Iran 250K
  6. Istanbul, 200k
  7. Gaur, India, 200k
  8. Paris, 185k

Written by Anjar Priandoyo

Maret 15, 2016 at 6:07 am

Ditulis dalam Management

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